Lithium-ion 12-volt batteries didn’t gain a lot of attention and have “flown under the radar” in the few years since being introduced by BMW. Customers likely don’t know which type of battery they have, and technicians likely won’t know either without learning how to identify them. Let’s dig into this type of battery construction, and
Let’s face it, modern vehicles are more dependent on electrical systems than ever before. These days, it seems that you can’t turn on a heated seat, turn on a light, or roll down a window without one or more control units communicating with one another. This of course presents a tremendous challenge for future vehicles,
First, verify the customer did not run out of fuel at the time the DTCs were stored.
This engine has aged well and is proving to be quite reliable over time; assuming it’s properly maintained, of course.
Make sure all sensors are clean, and that no built-up debris surrounds the sensors prior to testing.
Follow these steps to correct the noise heard while adjusting the height of the steering column.
There are two types of carbage. The first is called the ‘collector’ and the second is called a ‘dumpster’.
Follow the proper diagnostics for any of the DTCs listed using the procedures provided in the applicable service manual.
The February issue includes technical and management content and is free to download and read.