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The Case of the Missing Starter

I was called last fall by a client who owns a heavy-duty diesel shop to diagnose a no-cranking condition on his father-in-law’s 2006 Chevrolet Tahoe. Because his work is mainly with heavy-duty trucks, my client knew he was lacking both in tooling and...

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Spark Plug Replacement Do’s and Don’ts

Tooling has changed from the old 13/16-inch spark plug socket to a multiplicity of 5/8-inch long, short, intermediate and swivel, thin-wall sockets needed to ­replace spark plugs on many modern engines. Similarly, tightening spark plugs with the old...

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The Best Tests For Fuel Delivery Systems

The ancient Greek philosopher Heraclitus said that there is nothing permanent except change. Greek history aside, it’s easy to spot change in our current market because vehicle fuel delivery technology has evolved to ­include conventional, pulse-modulated...

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Service Adviser Pay Program Tips That Work

If you are looking to drive up your profits, you need to ensure you have service advisers that have the right attitude, aptitude and ethics. They will need to have the natural talent to sell, they will need to be well trained, and they will need to have...

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Should Your Shop Be Open December 26th?

Merry Christmas! What? Christmas? Yup, it’s not that far away, and if you haven’t looked at the calendar it falls on Thursday this year. So what? Well, if you’re a shop owner you will probably give little thought about the Friday after Christmas...

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Employee Behavior Outside Of Your Shop

I got a call the other day from a fellow shop owner who needed to vent. He runs a big shop and gives his techs a lunch break every day from noon till 1:00 p.m. His techs got into the habit of going to the local mall and hanging out in the parking lot;...

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How Does a Dual Clutch Transmission Work?

Dual clutch transmissions are like ­having two manual transmissions shifting together while being controlled like an automatic transmission. This is the transmission of the future because it is lighter than an automatic and is just as ­efficient...

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Alignment Spec: 2005-2013 Ford Mustang

In 2005, Ford introduced a new Mustang with an all-new platform and clean-sheet design. While the formula of a live axle rear and MacPherson strut front end were the same from the previous model, Ford refined the design. These changes make for a vehicle...

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Toyota Synergy Drive Hybrid Brake Job

Making its debut in 1997, Toyota’s Synergy Drive has been used in the Prius, Camry and offered on almost all Lexus models since 2006. Below are some of the basic rules of the road and some fixes that may come in handy when performing a brake job...

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TPMS: Weighing The Options

By Sean Phillips, Contributing Writer As a former technician who has dealt with the incredibly wide range and variety of OE tire pressure sensors that shops need to cover, using one of the newest aftermarket systems that can cover the vast majority...

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Making Money Servicing TPMS

If a vehicle leaves your shop with the TPMS light on or flashing, you could be fined upwards of $10,000. Every vehicle since 2008 has been equipped with TPMS in accordance to new government regulations, so this monitoring system has grown rapidly in population...

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Atlas Copco Included in Top 10 of Newsweek’s Sustainability Ranking

Atlas Copco has been ranked seventh by Newsweek Green Rankings, one of the world’s foremost corporate environmental rankings of the 500 largest publicly traded, global companies by market capitalization. Newsweek Green Rankings uses data from Bloomberg’s...

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Home European When To Replace Steering Knuckles and Arms

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ight passenger side because the right wheel is more apt to hit a curb than the left wheel.

CAMBER CLUES
Tire wear can also be affected by camber. Excessive camber loads one side of the tread more heavily than the other, resulting in uneven wear. Camber wear typically produces uneven wear on one side of the tire tread. If the inside of the tread is worn off, the wheel has too much negative camber. A worn outer tread indicates too much positive camber.

Camber can also affect directional stability. A vehicle will lead toward the side with the most camber. So always compare camber readings on both sides. More than half a degree difference can cause a steering pull.

If camber is off on one side only, a close encounter with a pothole or curb may have bent a spindle, control arm or strut. A shift in the position of a strut tower can cause the same thing. A shift in the position of a crossmember, on the other hand, will usually change camber on both sides. In MacPherson strut suspensions, the position of the upper strut tower is critical. Too far in and the wheel will have too much negative camber. Too far out and it will have too much positive camber. A bent strut or spindle can affect camber as can a bent control arm, a mislocated crossmember or an off-center engine cradle in a FWD car.

One way to identify hidden damage that may be affecting camber is to do a “jounce/rebound camber check.” Raise the suspension four inches and read camber on both sides. Then compress the suspension four inches and read the camber angles for both wheels again.

Different side-to-side camber readings with a jounce/rebound camber check usually indicates a bent strut that needs to be replaced or straightened. If the readings are the same, a check of the “steering axis inclination” (SAI) angle side-to-side should also be made.

SAI, THE DIAGNOSTIC ANGLE
SAI is a “built-in” angle that can help you detect all kinds of hidden damage. SAI is the angle of the steering axis and runs from the center of the upper ball joints or strut towers through the center of the lower ball joints. SAI should always be the same on both sides. A difference of more than a degree usually indicates a mispositioned strut tower, bent spindle or control arm.

It’s important to always check SAI even if no specs are provided because unequal SAI side-to-side (even if camber is within specs) can contribute to torque steer, brake pull during sudden stops and even bump steer. You can zero in on the hidden damage (a bent or mislocated strut, bent control arm and/or bent spindle) by comparing the SAI angle, camber reading and “included angle” (the angle between camber and SAI). See the above SAI diagnosis chart.

Here’s another way to check for strut problems. Loosen the two camber adjustment cam bolts on the strut (if provided), push the steering knuckles in as far as they’ll go toward negative camber and measure the distance between the strut and brake rotor on both sides. Then compare readings. If both distances are the same, you can rule out misalignment at the bottom end of the strut or a bent spindle. If they’re different, one of the struts is bent.

Bending a strut to “realign” the front end is no answer because you shouldn’t fix one problem by creating another. Bending a strut may bring camber back into range ‹ assuming the wheel isn’t off more than one and a half degrees (which is the maximum limit for bending any strut). But bending a perfectly good strut to compensate for misalignment elsewhere is going to create unequal camber changes side-to-side during jounce and rebound, which may create a bump-steer condition. There is also a risk of weakening the strut, which may lead to strut failure later.

To check for a bent strut shaft, loosen the large shaft nut at the top of each strut and rotate the shaft 360° while keeping an eye on the camber reading. If the shaft is bent, the top of the wheel will wobble in and out, and the camber reading will change as the shaft turns. No change in the camber reading means there’s nothing wrong with the strut. A strut with a bent shaft must be replaced. There’s no way to safely straighten this kind of damage because attempting to bend a hardened shaft will likely crack it.

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