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Aftermarket TPMS Sensors and Scan Tools

Aftermarket TPMS Solutions Servicing tire pressure monitoring systems (TPMS) can be a quick money-maker that requires minimal labor. The service is also essential since this maintenance applies to every vehicle made or sold in the U.S. since 2008. Manufacturers...

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Fuel Tank Installation: Avoiding the Second Drop

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Understanding the Differences Between Fuel Hoses Fuel hoses are not universal. Outside of the dimensional requirements, fuel hoses have requirements for permeation, pressure and the type of fuel they can carry. This can get even more confusing when...

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Clint Bowyer Crew Chief Billy Scott Wins Career-First MOOG 'Problem Solver' Award

Billy Scott, crew chief for Clint Bowyer and the No. 15 Maxwell House Toyota Camry, won his career-first MOOG Steering and Suspension “Problem Solver of the Race” Award after Bowyer made a late charge to finish sixth in Sunday’s Cheez-It 355 NASCAR...

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A New Way To Learn: Bosch Xperience Mobile Tour Comes To Babcox

The Bosch Xperience Mobile Tour made a stop on Aug. 5 at Babcox Media. Editors were invited to experience the simulated virtual workshop, working through a series of real-world vehicle repair problems using Oculus Rift headset technology. Two trucks,...

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Raybestos Partners With Schwartz Performance To Restore Classic '69 Mustang Fastback

Raybestos has joined forces once again with Schwartz Performance to restore an American icon muscle car: a 1969 Ford Mustang Fastback. “Raybestos and Mustang are the perfect match of history, leadership and innovation. Working with the first-class...

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Electric Power Steering Diagnostics

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How to Test Drive a Car to Check for Problems

Test Drive Diagnostics Test drives on the surface can seem like one of the most unprofitable tasks a technician can perform. But, test drives can be one of the most profitable processes a shop can do to help sell more service. You just have to have procedures...

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Cheap Brake Pads

The Real Cost of Installing Cheap Brake Pads Ever since the first issue of Brake & Front End came off the presses, the magazine has warned of the costs of using inferior friction materials with brake pads. In the 1930s, the magazine fought the fight...

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Identifix Celebrates 50,000 Direct-Hit Subscribers with 50K Giveaway Contest

Identifix, Inc. has reached another milestone: its 50,000th subscriber to Direct-Hit, its award-winning online tool. To commemorate the occasion, the company has launched a contest called the 50K Giveaway. Five Direct-Hit users who submit a Hotline...

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Liquid Tools: Choose Your Maintenance Chemicals Based On The Application

The shelves in most parts stores are stocked with an abundance of aerosol maintenance products – everything from cleaners to lubricants. The huge selection of products can be overwhelming, leading to confusion about which product you should purchase...

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Snap-on Franchisee Conference Draws Record Crowd

Snap-on reports that it drew a record-setting crowd for its Snap-on Franchisee Conference (SFC) held in Washington, D.C., this year. The three-day business conference brings together Snap-on Tools franchisees for insight, information and celebration...

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Home European When To Replace Steering Knuckles and Arms

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ight passenger side because the right wheel is more apt to hit a curb than the left wheel.

CAMBER CLUES
Tire wear can also be affected by camber. Excessive camber loads one side of the tread more heavily than the other, resulting in uneven wear. Camber wear typically produces uneven wear on one side of the tire tread. If the inside of the tread is worn off, the wheel has too much negative camber. A worn outer tread indicates too much positive camber.

Camber can also affect directional stability. A vehicle will lead toward the side with the most camber. So always compare camber readings on both sides. More than half a degree difference can cause a steering pull.

If camber is off on one side only, a close encounter with a pothole or curb may have bent a spindle, control arm or strut. A shift in the position of a strut tower can cause the same thing. A shift in the position of a crossmember, on the other hand, will usually change camber on both sides. In MacPherson strut suspensions, the position of the upper strut tower is critical. Too far in and the wheel will have too much negative camber. Too far out and it will have too much positive camber. A bent strut or spindle can affect camber as can a bent control arm, a mislocated crossmember or an off-center engine cradle in a FWD car.

One way to identify hidden damage that may be affecting camber is to do a “jounce/rebound camber check.” Raise the suspension four inches and read camber on both sides. Then compress the suspension four inches and read the camber angles for both wheels again.

Different side-to-side camber readings with a jounce/rebound camber check usually indicates a bent strut that needs to be replaced or straightened. If the readings are the same, a check of the “steering axis inclination” (SAI) angle side-to-side should also be made.

SAI, THE DIAGNOSTIC ANGLE
SAI is a “built-in” angle that can help you detect all kinds of hidden damage. SAI is the angle of the steering axis and runs from the center of the upper ball joints or strut towers through the center of the lower ball joints. SAI should always be the same on both sides. A difference of more than a degree usually indicates a mispositioned strut tower, bent spindle or control arm.

It’s important to always check SAI even if no specs are provided because unequal SAI side-to-side (even if camber is within specs) can contribute to torque steer, brake pull during sudden stops and even bump steer. You can zero in on the hidden damage (a bent or mislocated strut, bent control arm and/or bent spindle) by comparing the SAI angle, camber reading and “included angle” (the angle between camber and SAI). See the above SAI diagnosis chart.

Here’s another way to check for strut problems. Loosen the two camber adjustment cam bolts on the strut (if provided), push the steering knuckles in as far as they’ll go toward negative camber and measure the distance between the strut and brake rotor on both sides. Then compare readings. If both distances are the same, you can rule out misalignment at the bottom end of the strut or a bent spindle. If they’re different, one of the struts is bent.

Bending a strut to “realign” the front end is no answer because you shouldn’t fix one problem by creating another. Bending a strut may bring camber back into range ‹ assuming the wheel isn’t off more than one and a half degrees (which is the maximum limit for bending any strut). But bending a perfectly good strut to compensate for misalignment elsewhere is going to create unequal camber changes side-to-side during jounce and rebound, which may create a bump-steer condition. There is also a risk of weakening the strut, which may lead to strut failure later.

To check for a bent strut shaft, loosen the large shaft nut at the top of each strut and rotate the shaft 360° while keeping an eye on the camber reading. If the shaft is bent, the top of the wheel will wobble in and out, and the camber reading will change as the shaft turns. No change in the camber reading means there’s nothing wrong with the strut. A strut with a bent shaft must be replaced. There’s no way to safely straighten this kind of damage because attempting to bend a hardened shaft will likely crack it.

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