AfterMarketNews AfterMarketNews Auto Care Pro AutoCareCareerHub Brake&Frontend BodyShopBusiness Counterman EngineBuilder Fleet Equipment ImportCar Motorcycle & Powersports News Servicio Automotriz Shop Owner Tire Review Tech Shop Tomorrow's Tech Underhood Service Speedville

Is Vehicle Hacking Good For The Aftermarket

You have probably seen the Wired magazine story about the two guys who managed to hack a 2014 Jeep Cherokee using the telematics connection called U-Connect. Although the driver, a writer for Wired, was in on the hack for the sake of the story, the hackers...


Head Gasket Repair and Diagnostics

What You Need to Know About Head Gasket Repair Head gasket repair sits atop the Mount Rushmore of challenging repair jobs a technician may be faced with. Dealing with head gasket issues isn’t for the inexperienced tech. Although these jobs can...


MINI Turbocharger Failure Caused By Oil Supply Line Blockage

Affected Models: R55 (Cooper Clubman S) with N14 engine R56 (Cooper S) with N14 engine R57 (Cooper S Convertible) with N14 engine *Vehicles produced up to Dec. 15, 2009 Condition:  The customer complains of loss of performance and turbocharger...


Thorough Brake Inspections Are Comeback Preventers And Profit Builders

How many times have you seen a hand-painted sign in a shop window that advertised a menu-priced brake pad replacement for “$XX.95 per axle.” Of course, a menu-priced brake replacement would be good if a simple brake pad replacement would cure all...


Air Filter Show & Tell: Seeing Is Believing

Air filters are normal wear items that ­require regular checks and ­replacement. Their role is to trap dirt particles that can cause damage to engine cylinders, walls, pistons and piston rings. In fuel-injected vehicles, the air filter also plays...


Build The Car Of Your Dreams In Quaker State Contest

At Quaker State, we know that happiness can’t be bought—it’s built part by part. That’s why we want to give you the opportunity to win a classic truck and customize it to the next level. Through the “Build The Car of Your Dreams” contest,...


Anti-Sway Bar Repair and Service

Anti-Sway Bar Technology Anti-sway bars (aka sway, stabilizer or anti-roll bars) never get the credit they deserve. If anti-sway bars were never invented, the ride and handling of vehicles would be a lot more harsh than it is today. That is because...


EPB Diagnostics

EPB Systems and Diagnostics A growing number of vehicles are equipped with electronic parking brakes (EPB) that automatically engage the parking brake when the transmission is shifted into park or it detects that the vehicle is on a hill. If you are...


2010-2013 Kia Soul Brake Repair

The 2010-2013 KIA Soul has one of the most trouble-free brake systems on the market. But, when some Kia Souls begin to push 50,000-70,000 miles, they can suffer more from cheap brake pad slaps and a lack of service to the calipers, ABS system and brake...


Sorting Through Multiple Codes On A Chevy

“My dash lights up like a ­pinball machine, the ­engine loses power for a few seconds, and then seems to run OK.” Although I’d actually been chasing this Diagnostic Dilemma for the better part of a year, this four-wheel drive 2001 Blazer equipped...


Red Kap Welcomes Troy Ladd of Hollywood Hot Rods to The Craftsmen Series

Red Kap has selected L.A. Roadsters 2012 Builder of the Year Troy Ladd as the third custom car icon to be added to the growing stable of Red Kap Craftsmen. Ladd owns Hollywood Hot Rods in Burbank, CA, and has been designing, building and restoring incredible...


Identifix Celebrates 50,000 Direct-Hit Subscribers with 50K Giveaway Contest

Identifix, Inc. has reached another milestone: its 50,000th subscriber to Direct-Hit, its award-winning online tool. To commemorate the occasion, the company has launched a contest called the 50K Giveaway. Five Direct-Hit users who submit a Hotline...


Home European Diagnostic Solutions: Engine Coolant Temperature Sensors

Print Print Email Email

Considering that roughly 1,500 or more ­different vehicle models are introduced into our domestic market each year, it’s becoming more difficult to predict how a Powertrain Control Module (PCM) will utilize data from a particular sensor or detect an out-of-range sensor in any single vehicle platform. The engine coolant temperature (ECT) ­sensor provides a good illustration of how many on-board diagnostic strategies have changed. Keeping in mind that an of out-of-range ECT ­sensor can, among other things, affect the PCM’s fuel and spark mapping, variable camshaft timing, transmission, radiator cooling fan and evaporative emissions functions, it’s important to develop an awareness of how the PCM self-diagnoses the ECT circuit and how the ECT data is integrated into a vehicle’s ­operating strategy.

Much of any on-board diagnostic strategy ­depends upon the computing capacity of the PCM. Most pre-1996 OBD I and many early post-OBD II Engine Control Modules (ECMs) and PCMs had only enough computing capacity to detect hard or intermittent circuit voltage faults.

In many cases, early ECMs didn’t have enough capacity to rationalize the performance of the ECT sensor with other data inputs. So, in some applications, it’s possible that an out-of-range sensor can affect the operation of many OBD II test monitors and the operation of many vehicle components without setting a trouble code. In passing, remember that the ECT input is part of the freeze-frame data that accompanies most ­diagnostic trouble codes.


diagram 1: the coolant temperature should rise steadily as the engine warms up.Most modern automotive ECT and intake air temperature (IAT) sensors are generally two-wire, “negative temperature coefficient” (NTC) thermistors in which the electrical resistance of the ECT and IAT sensors decreases as temperatures increase. See ­Diagrams 1 and 2.

diagram 2: the coolant temperature should level out as the thermostat opens.At the extremes, an open-circuit ECT should indicate a scan tool data of approximately -40°F coolant temperature, since the PCM is receiving a zero ­return voltage. In contrast, short-circuiting the ECT connector from the PCM’s 5-volt reference terminal to the PCM’s voltage return terminal should indicate a scan tool data of approximately +300°F coolant temperature.

Both temperatures are programmed into the on-board diagnostic strategy as the most extreme ­temperatures under which the engine might be ­expected to operate. The first ­series of “Global” circuit-related codes include P0115 (ECT circuit fault), P0117 (ECT low input voltage), P0118 (ECT high input voltage) and P0119 (ECT sensor or ­circuit ­erratic).


Electrical failures include low ECT return voltages caused by corroded ECT connectors or, at another extreme, a low reference voltage caused by another sensor shorting the reference voltage circuit. In some cases, a P0116 DTC will be set if the PCM detects an error in the range or performance of the ECT sensor.

Mechanical failures include low ECT return voltages caused by low coolant levels and stuck-open thermostats, which are often represented by a second ­series of P0125-128 DTCs. The low coolant level will cause a much lower-than-expected ECT return voltage because the ECT sensor is no longer in contact with the coolant.

Presumably, the driver will see a “low coolant” warning light on his instrument cluster. Perhaps the “Check Engine” light will be illuminated and a DTC set, or perhaps not. In contrast, the stuck-open thermostat will cause a slow warm-up time and might store a P0128 DTC simply because the PCM sees a lower-than-normal coolant temperature for a predetermined length of time.

Because the ECT sensor is a primary input data, practically all ECMs and PCMs are programmed to detect open and shorted circuits in the ECT­ ­circuit. But, when detecting an out-of-range ECT sensor, the actual ECT test monitor can vary among applications. The PCM can, for example, measure the time, speed and load required to bring an engine up to a predetermined coolant temperature of, let’s say, 194°F.

If the indicated ECT data hasn’t reached the ­desired operating temperature during a specific time limit and at a specific engine speed and load factor, the PCM might set a P0125 (insufficient temperature for closed-loop operation) or a P0128 (coolant temperature below thermostat-regulated temperature), which in most (but not all) cases ­indicates a bad thermostat. If this diagnostic strategy sounds complicated, that’s because it is complicated, and also because it can vary widely among different applications.


Enabling criteria are simply the types of sensor ­inputs required by the PCM to run a test monitor and to set a specific DTC. Since enabling criteria are application-specific, an appropriate technical database must be consulted before making any assumptions. The engine coolant temperature is important because it forms part of the enabling criteria for many component test monitors and is part of the freeze-frame data for most DTCs.

diagram 3: this sharp drop in the ect signal caused the air/fuel mixture to momentarily lean out, which caused an intermittent, no-code stalling complaint on this 1997 toyota camry. this very same driveability complaint might not exist on a 2013 vehicle.As ­illustrated above, if the ECT sensor is indicating a momentary dip in coolant temperature on a 1996 OBD II vehicle, the result might be a no-code, cold-engine driveability complaint because the PCM has increased fuel delivery to meet the fuel map for the indicated (not the actual) engine operating temperature. See Diagram 3.

If the ECT is indicating a lower than actual ­operating temperature, it’s possible that the PCM might increase the pulse width to enrich the fuel mixture only until the oxygen sensor provides a data input to the PCM so it can assume fuel control. With early OBD II vehicles, an over-rich condition might also depend upon how much authority software engineers programmed into the PCM for the ECT input. On low-authority systems, the effects would be negligible, whereas on high-authority systems, the effects might be profound.


But let’s fast-forward to 2013 when a vehicle has a far greater capacity to detect a sensor fault than does the PCM in a 1996 model. Here’s where experience can lead us astray. For example, a 1996 engine might compare the data inputs from the IAT sensor and the ECT sensors to determine if the engine is starting from a cold-soak or a hot-soak condition. If both temperatures are within, let’s say, eight degrees of each other, the PCM ­assumes that the engine is starting from a cold-soak condition. This data allows the PCM to adjust the spark and fuel maps to start and run from a cold-soak condition.

But, let’s say that the ECT ­resistance is lower than specification and is therefore indicating a higher coolant temperature. In this case, the PCM might assume that the engine is starting from a hot-soak condition, when, in fact, it is not. This false data might cause a cold driveability complaint, and, among other things, possibly prevent the evaporative emissions monitor from running.

With 1996 vehicles, it’s also conceivable that an out-of range ECT sensor or stuck-open thermostat can prevent a DTC from being set for a defective oxygen sensor because the system never reaches closed-loop operation. Similarly, many 1996 automatic transmissions might not engage the torque converter lock-up clutch or transmission overdrive gear until the ECT sensor indicates that the engine has reached a specific operating temperature.

On the other hand, because modern heated ­zirconia oxygen or air/fuel ratio (AFR) sensors on a 2010 vehicle allow the PCM to assume fuel control practically as soon as the engine is started, the oxygen or AFR sensor is given more authority than the ECT sensor for entering closed-loop operation. Multiple A/F and oxygen sensors also provide a backup data stream and allow the PCM to compare the data inputs of each sensor.

So, an out-of-range ECT sensor on a 2010 vehicle would likely not affect driveability or performance as much as on a 1996 model. ­Instead, the 2010 PCM might project a value for the ­expected engine temperature by monitoring ­enabling criteria like intake air temperature ­engine speed and engine load. Furthermore, the additional computing capacity of the 2010 vehicle might allow its PCM to overlook a momentary glitch in the ECT data input (See Diagram 3 on page 28) and ­instead simply store an ECT-related trouble code in its diagnostic memory.


The simplest diagnostic strategy for diagnosing IAT and ECT sensors is to compare their data ­inputs after the vehicle has cold-soaked overnight. A ­second strategy can include using a scan tool to graph the ECT voltage. A third, but less reliable, method is to use an infrared pyrometer or “heat gun” to compare both intake air and engine cylinder head temperatures with the data stream displayed on a scan tool. But, remember that due to the “reflectivity” of various surfaces, the heat gun ­approach will not indicate the exact temperature indicated on the scan tool.

Lastly, make sure you’re testing the correct ­sensor. Keep in mind that the IAT sensor is usually integrated with the hot-wire mass air flow sensor assembly on most current vehicles. Many pre-1996 OBD I vehicles included a separate temperature sensor for activating the ­radiator cooling fans. Early OBD I and OBD II ­vehicles used a ­single-wire ECT sensor to supply data to the ­instrument cluster temperature gauge and a ­separate two-wire sensor to supply data to the PCM. Thanks to multiplexing, which makes it possible to share a single datastream among various control modules, modern ­vehicles generally use a single ECT sensor to supply engine coolant temperature data to ­various modules. 

Latest articles from our other sites:

Is Vehicle Hacking Good For The Aftermarket

You have probably seen the Wired magazine story about the two guys who managed to hack a 2014 Jeep Cherokee using the telematics connection called U-Connect. Although the driver, a writer for Wired, was...More

ECU Diagnostics

ECU Diagnostics: 1976 Datsun (Nissan) 280Z Call me old-school, but imagine my surprise this spring when a retired “friend of a friend” car collector called about diagnosing a 1976 Datsun (Nissan)...More

Federated Charity Golf Outing Raises More Than $55,000 For Toys For Tots

Federated Auto Parts said its recent charity golf tournament exceeded all expectations, raising $57,500 for the 2015 Toys for Tots campaign. “Since so many of our members and suppliers were in Richmond...More

Ford's eCounter Partners With Diagnostic Site Identifix Direct-Hit To Streamline Aftermarket Repairs

For technicians who use Ford Motorcraft’s eCounter to order parts, their work just got a lot easier. eCounter, Motorcraft’s e-commerce tool, has now partnered with Identifix – a provider of automotive...More

Is Vehicle Hacking Good For The Aftermarket

You have probably seen the Wired magazine story about the two guys who managed to hack a 2014 Jeep Cherokee using the telematics connection called U-Connect. Although the driver, a writer for Wired, was...More

Anti-Sway Bar Repair and Service

Anti-Sway Bar Technology Anti-sway bars (aka sway, stabilizer or anti-roll bars) never get the credit they deserve. If anti-sway bars were never invented, the ride and handling of vehicles would be...More

Easy-Run Engine Test Stands Provide a Quick, Safe Solution For Testing Engines Before Installation

Easy-Run Engine Test Stands are the perfect solution for starting and testing engines before they are installed in a vehicle. Easily test new, used or rebuilt engines, detect leaks, tune and properly break...More

Tracer’s Ultrasonic Diagnostic Tool Hears Problems Before They Lead to Breakdowns

The Tracerline Marksman II (P/N TP-9367) is an ultrasonic diagnostic tool that converts and amplifies inaudible ultrasonic sound into audible “natural” sound. Now service technicians can easily hear...More